Avoiding food waste: a key strategy for sustainable development

Today September 29 is the International Day of Awareness on Food Loss and Waste. The UN emphasizes that avoiding food waste should be an important strategy to avoid hunger and the effects of climate change.The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has launched a global action to reduce food waste. This campaign is part of a United Nations effort to get countries to commit to controlling food loss and waste.According to FAO Director General Qu Dongyu, the current moment requires urgent changes to counter the crisis.In addition to preventing hunger, food waste can also improve plans to combat the effects of climate change. A study conducted by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) shows that reducing food waste and more sustainable eating habits can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 25%.

UNEP Executive Director Inger Andersen stresses that the current crisis is an opportune time to radically rethink how food is produced and consumed. “For example, redirect consumption by cutting food waste in half and accelerating the shift to diets that are richer in plants,” he says.

Evitar el desperdicio de alimentos: una estrategia clave para el desarrollo sostenible

The study highlights the absence of this strategy, that of encouraging more sustainable diets, among the countries’ climate change action plans.

FUNIBER promotes university studies in various areas, such as Nutrition and the Environment, with different training programs.

Sources: Eat less meat and reduce food waste, two strategies against climate change ignored by countries

FAO unveils platform to help accelerate action on reducing food loss and waste

Photo: All rights reserved.


ZMA in bodybuilding

What is ZMA?

ZMA is a scientifically designed mineral formula that contains Zinc, Aspartate, Magnesium and Vitamin B-6. It is an all-natural product that has been clinically proven to significantly increase anabolic hormonal and muscle levels in trained athletes.

These three compounds are extremely important in biological processes and according to studies at US universities they have shown that less than 70% of Europeans and Americans get enough zinc in their diet, and less than 40% enough magnesium. It has also been shown that increased exercise can lead to losses of vitamins and minerals. Zinc is particularly important from a bodybuilding point of view due to its role in the production of testosterone . The old story that oysters are an aphrodisiac is probably related to the fact that they are rich in zinc. Low levels of zinc and magnesium have a strong adverse effect on muscle growth . Therefore, it is obvious that people need these minerals and vitamins. This is where ZMA comes in, being a synergistic combination of zinc and magnesium, in addition to vitamin B6, designed to maximize absorption and promote muscle recovery, making it a perfect supplement for any bodybuilder .

El ZMA en el culturismo

Ingredientes del ZMA

  • Zinc : Zinc is essential for numerous chemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis and cellular energy. The benefits to the immune system are thanks to zinc’s ability to regulate T-cell production. Zinc also helps provide critical protection for the liver, helps deter prostate gland enlargement, and is essential for maintaining the health of the reproductive organ.
  • Magnesium: Magnesium is essential for normal heart function, the transport of neurochemicals essential in muscle function and regulation of humor, and in the critical balance of sodium and potassium within cells. Despite their significant contributions, the US Department of Agriculture found that 74% of people take less than the recommended daily value of 400 milligrams (for men).

Benefits of ZMA

One of the most important benefits of ZMA is its effective ability to increase testosterone and growth hormone in the body! Something that all of us need to build muscle. According to studies carried out in the USA, ZMA could increase testosterone up to 30% more.

ZMA can also aid muscle recovery, improving muscle relaxation during sleep , I can’t stress enough how important it is for any athlete lifting weights or advanced bodybuilders.

How to take the ZMA

  • An hour before bedtime is an ideal time to take your ZMA supplement.
  • Take ZMA every day, including days off so you can reap the benefits.
  • ZMA is best taken on an empty stomach, it is especially important that you do not consume calcium with your ZMA product, as the effects will decrease.
  • The recommended dose of ZMA is generally 3 tablets per day, however check the product label for details. one serving of ZMA (3 tablets) usually has about 450 mg of magnesium, 30 mg of zinc and 10.5 mg of vitamin B6.


I have personally taken it several times and have seen good results at bedtime and also in muscle recovery. I recommend that everyone try it as it works and get their own conclusions about the product.

Bodybuilder nutrition

Pre and Post-workout Nutrition

Is there a better way to consume nutrients to maximize muscle and strength gains? In this article we will explain the importance of pre and post workout nutrition.

If you are a bodybuilder, powerlifter, strongman or a normal athlete, there is an established wisdom when it comes to eating and training that never fails – you need to consume protein with a high biological value (approximately 2-3g / per kilo of weight lean body), plus a diet rich in nutrients (fat + carbohydrates + protein) that meet the caloric needs of a progressive resistance training.

The problem of 3 meals a day

The goal of any diet is to provide the food or macronutrients necessary to support the athlete’s goals. The determination of the amount of these macronutrients is very individualized and will always depend on the preferences of the athlete. Not all of us eat 6 meals a day, there are people who consume 3-4 and even less.

So, really What’s the problem with dividing our diet into three meals, like our parents did when we were little?

There is a small glaring problem, and that is that trying to eat the number of calories needed by some athletes in three sessions is almost impossible – it is much easier and more comfortable for them to divide them into smaller portions. Imagine if we only ate 3 times a day with a 3600 calorie diet, we would have to consume 1200 calories per meal …

Nutrición Pre y Post-entrenamiento

Understanding protein synthesis a little

Muscle protein synthesis has shown high peaks approximately 30 minutes after ingestion of protein, staying elevated for 90 minutes, and then falling to low levels for four hours even though we have amino acids remaining in blood levels. There appears to be a cut-off point whereby muscle protein synthesis simply stops despite a continuous supply of amino acids. So what to do? Nothing. You have a fixed amount of food to eat during the day, and you have to arrange it in the most convenient way for you. What you do have to remember is that the pre-workout meal is one of the most important of the day to maximize protein synthesis. It’s worth remembering that the main stimulus for muscle protein synthesis is resistance training, not the protein itself.

The goal of any training nutrition protocol is to maximize muscle protein synthesis and minimize protein breakdown. In other words, the goal is to increase anabolism and prevent catabolism.

Post-workout vs Pre-workout meal

Let’s start with the most talked about, post-workout food.

It’s a mantra now: post-workout, you have to consume fast-acting carbohydrates and protein within a 30-minute window.

This mixture of insulin and amino acid spikes is transported directly to the muscles. Logically this makes sense, but unless you trained on an empty stomach first thing in the morning, your insulin and plasma amino acid levels will still be high enough after the previous meal to prevent protein breakdown.

Just 6 g of amino acids and 35 g of carbohydrates is enough to maintain high insulin levels for an hour after exercise.

It is the pre-workout meal that deserves our attention, not the post-workout meal.
A meal composed of protein, carbohydrates, and even fat (which does not affect insulin, as many have said times) consumed approximately one hour before training will provide the necessary insulin and substrates to maximize anabolism and prevent catabolism.

An example of a pre-workout meal could be: 100 grams of brown rice + 300 grams of chicken / meat / or fish + 100 grams of avocado.

About half an hour after the session, when the amino acids in the blood and the insulin levels have decreased, take a protein shake of whey so that the synthesis of muscle protein begins again.

Advanced concepts

We’ve got the basics covered: how we eat during the day and the way we eat around our training:

  • Should we consume large amounts of leucine to increase protein synthesis? As much as leucine (one of the three branched chain amino acids) by itself stimulates protein synthesis, which is really relevant in a fasting state, the rest of the time, eating large amounts of protein daily in our diet, we will have enough leucine. This goes for the other two BCAAs (isoleucine and valine) as well – about 30-50g daily.
  • Is it smart or just foolish to take BCAAs every 5 hours? Most of the studies done on BCAAs have been done with the body in a fasted state and in people with a very low total protein intake – anything helps in this situation!
  • What is the ideal nutritional protocol? After you have determined the macronutrient intake you need, you can decide the best way to divide it. If you work 8-10 hours a day and cannot afford to eat 6-7 times a day, try eating 4, as long as you meet the total calories.
  • Establish daily needs – the amount of protein, carbohydrates and fats needed for your goal. You may need to adjust the figure after a couple of weeks. If you want to gain weight to reach your goal and you cannot do it with your current diet, increase 250 calories and monitor the weight for two weeks. Similarly, cut 250 calories if you need to lose weight and are not making progress following your initial assumption.
  • Load up your food intake to coincide with breakfast and the pre-and post-workout period. If you follow diets like intermitten fasting, just worry about the last two.
Bodybuilder nutrition

Intermitteng fasting

If you already have a good healthy fitness plan, and are looking for a way to take it to the next level, then you may want to consider intermittent fasting. In essence, this type of diet focuses on ordering meals on a schedule, skipping breakfast.

Intermittent Fasting (IF), or intermittent fasting, is a type of diet based on the combination of periods of fasting with periods of food intake.

It makes sense that our genes are optimized for this type of feeding schedule. It takes about six to eight hours for the body to metabolize glycogen stores so that it can then begin to switch to burning fat. However, if you are replenishing glycogen by eating every 3-4 hours, it becomes much more difficult for your body to actually use its fat stores for fuel.

Intermitteng fasting

Medical research

Recent research suggests that intermittent fasting may indeed be a key weight loss tool. It seems especially powerful when combined with exercise, meaning training while in a fasted state.

Exercise on an empty stomach has been shown to have a number of health and fitness benefits. It can even be a key to keeping your body biologically young. This is most easily accomplished if you exercise first thing in the morning, before breakfast.

Part of the explanation why exercising while fasting is beneficial is that this regimen supplements the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), along with its ability to burn fat. Your body’s fat-burning processes are controlled by the SNS, which is activated by exercise and lack of food. Another reason is that fasting can trigger a dramatic increase in human growth hormone (HGH), also known as the “sleep hormone.” Recent research has found an HGH rise of 1,300 percent in women and 2,000 percent in men while fasting!

The combination of fasting and exercise maximizes the impact of cellular factors and catalysts (cyclic AMP and AMP kinases), which force the breakdown of fat and glycogen to produce energy.

That is why training on an empty stomach will effectively force your body to burn fat. Exercise and fasting also produce acute oxidative stress, which keeps muscle mitochondria, neuro-motors, and fibers intact. (You may have heard of oxidative stress in a negative way before, and in fact, when it is chronic it can lead to disease. But acute oxidative stress, such as occurs due to brief intense exercise or periodic fasting, actually benefits your muscles)

Benefits for health and for bodybuilding

Since then, numerous studies support its countless health benefits:

  • Regulation of blood levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, etc.
  • Regulation of blood pressure. Reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Regeneration and care of the nervous system. Brain anti-aging effect.
  • Promotes lipolysis (fat burning).
  • Reduces oxidative stress.
  • Reduces appetite and regulates hunger

In recent years, numerous ways of practicing FI have been proposed. Actually it is a very variable method that can be included in our day to day depending on our lifestyle, work rhythm, training, etc. Some examples can be:

  • Fasting for 16-18 hours (counting the hours of sleep). Two meals a day.
  • 24-hour fast. Only one meal a day.
  • 24-hour fast alternated with 24-hour eating ad libitum (Alternative Day Fasting or ADF).

The IF that best suits our lifestyle is intermittent fasting within the same day (16-18 hours), although everyone can try what suits them best. It is quite likely that the health benefits of IF are due to hormesis, so each one has to assess what stress (also psychological) it produces in their body.

Teacher Training

The Child Sexual Abuse Assessment Interview in the Forensic Setting

FUNIBER organizes the webinar “Child Abuse Assessment Interview” to explain the characteristics of the investigative interview to detect cases of sexual abuse in children.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in 5 women and one in 13 men report having suffered sexual harassment in childhood. But child abuse can still occur in many ways besides sexual harassment, but also through psychological harassment, inattention, commercial exploitation and other types that can harm the health, development and dignity of the child.

According to WHO, there is a difficulty in controlling this situation due to the diversity of related factors, also depending on each country and its policies. But there is consensus in prevention and intervention programs, in case a case is detected.

Recognizing cases at an early stage and providing ongoing assistance to victims and their families can help reduce the recurrence of abuse and alleviate the potential emotional and physical consequences for the child.

WHO recommends that these interventions be carried out within the framework of public health and can focus on four phases:

– The definition of the problem

– Identification of causes and risk factors

– The creation and testing of interventions aimed at minimizing risk factors.

– The dissemination of information on the effectiveness of interventions and the expansion of the application of interventions of proven effectiveness.

The Child Abuse Assessment Interview

Once the problem is detected, justice begins. For the total clarification of the facts, the children must be duly evaluated through research interviews. The objective is to obtain the relevant information so that the court can make the appropriate legal decisions.

Next November 11, FUNIBER organizes the webinar “Child Abuse Assessment Interview”, with Luis Jiménez Romero, Director of the Master’s Degree in Criminalistics and the Master’s Degree in Criminal Psychology, both programs awarded by the European University of Atlántico (UNEATLANTICO-Espanha) and promoted by FUNIBER through the Training Scholarship program.

Luis Jiménez has experience as a forensic psychologist, he is General Director of the School of Criminology of Catalonia.

During the webinar, Jiménez will discuss what are the characteristics of this type of interview, what he expects from the interviewer, what are the appropriate questions for the developmental level of each child and what may be the most effective strategies to interview children in this situation.


Tribulus Terrestris in Bodybuilding

The Tribulus terrestris is a plant that grows in tropical climates. The part of the plant that is of greatest interest is at the root. This plant has been used throughout the world for a variety of ailments. It has been used as a diuretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory supplement, and as a mood-enhancing tonic.

Like all herbs, Tribulus contains many active ingredients. However, the most important ingredient is its saponins – specifically protodioscin saponin – It is currently believed to be the main active nutrient derived from Tribulus. The most notable advantage of Tribulus terrestris is its use in the treatment of sexual deficiencies. It has been used in Asia and Bulgaria for years to treat libido and infertility problems. Tribulus terrestris is a non-hormonal herb that restores and improves libido in men, as well as enhancing and prolonging (no pun intended) the duration of erections. Tribulus terrestris increases the number of sperm and their mobility.

Tribulus Terrestris en el Culturismo

Use of Tribulus Terrestris in bodybuilding

Tribulus terrestris increases testosterone levels through an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH). LH is the hormone that signals the body to start making natural testosterone. There is a study that included 20 people who took 750 mg per day of tribulus terrestris. LH was shown to rise from 14.38 ml / U / ml to 24.75 ml / U / ml (which is a 72% increase in LH). Free testosterone ranged from 60 ng / dl to 84.5 ng / dl (which is a 41% increase). These increases in testosterone are of great interest to bodybuilders. These 20 people experienced increases in muscle size, endurance, and strength.

If Tribulus affects testosterone levels, you can do so by increasing luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Tribulus may also significantly lower blood glucose levels .

Dosage and how to take tribulus terrestris

Look for a Tribulus terrestris extract that is standardized to no less than 6% protodioscin and between 40% and 45% total saponins. If possible, the plant from which the supplement is derived comes from Turkey, Macedonia and Bulgaria.

The correct dose of Tribulus is between 6.3 and 8 milligrams of protodioscin per kilo of body weight per day.

Side effects of tribulus terrestris

Tribulus has been in use for a long time, and studies have found no adverse side effects of Tribulus. Again, one of the main benefits of Tribulus is that it is not a hormone and only helps increase testosterone by increasing the level of luteinizing hormones (LH). The only adverse side effect experienced is an upset stomach, which can be helped if taken with food.


  • Consider mixing a ZMA product with tribulus terrestris. The anabolic mineral formula consists of Zinc Monomethionine Aspartate, Magnesium Aspartate, and Vitamin B-6. Lorrie Brilla, PhD, reported that ZMA significantly increased free testosterone levels and muscle strength in NCAA soccer players in 1999.
  • Some people experience an upset stomach when taking T. terrestris. To minimize the chance of this happening, take the supplement with food. Don’t give up on intense training and a healthy lifestyle instead of supplements. Supplements are just that: They help supplement your earnings. Products that make lavish claims for muscle gain or decreased body fat levels should be questioned.
  • The data on Tribulus are not conclusive yet, but they are still promising. The current deficiencies may simply reflect a lack of research to dial in the correct dosage and conditions to optimize the testosterone response. Only time will tell.
  • I have personally used it several times and have not noticed gains in strength or muscle size. There is a lot of talk about this product, but honestly it seems like a waste of money to me.
Health and nutrition

Rice husks and stalks are turned into slices

University students in Colombia invented a new use for rice residues, avoiding the burning of these residues and the use of wood in some cases.

In the developed proposal, they used the shell and the stem to create sheets that can be used to make furniture, replacing the wood. According to the student Lina María Gil Rodríguez, from the Agronomic Engineering course at the National University of Colombia (UNAL), “with this product – made from waste – we want to reduce the cutting of trees to generate this type of material, and ideally, so we can replace the wood, ”he said.

Las cáscaras y los tallos de arroz se convierten en láminas

1,976,520 tons of rice waste were produced in the country in the second half of last year. The remains are generally cremated or used as a subsidy. However, as a fertilizer, it is polluting because it releases methane during decomposition and can cause respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies.

The proposal is to develop with these remains a type of agglomerate that can be used in a sustainable way both as thermal insulation, furniture, products for agriculture and other sectors of the primary economy.

The student team has developed the idea based on local demand, which would like to make better use of the remains of the rice produced. In conclusion, despite the solutions that require the installation of adequate machines, and possibly high cost, alternatives can be sought that offer benefits for both rice producers and the environment.

FUNIBER promotes the Master’s Degree in Environmental Engineering and Technology, which technically addresses different environmental problems, with the study of solutions and good practices, taking into account economic and social factors.


Sports to regulate the body and mental health

The study Sports and Mental Health, organized by the online platform for psychologists Ifeel, suggests some sports activities to treat some common psychological disorders.

According to the psychologist Rafael San Román, from Ifeel, an interview for the EFE agency highlights that all the aspects that can enhance mental health care are of interest to psychology.

To carry out the study, the experts observed the results of the patients who used the services of the platform. “The question is to find the type of exercise that works well for everyone, depending on the objective they pursue,” said San Román.

To establish these objectives it is necessary to know the individual goals and limits, taking into account the context of each one in order to recommend a physical activity.

The study has associated ten sports with ten mental disorders that could help control both the body and the mind. But as the psychologist points out, perseverance is necessary.

For anxiety, the study suggests the practice of Yoga, which helps to control breathing, manage emotions and better understand the body itself.

For those suffering from depression, one suggestion is boxing. With movements, endorphins are released and mood improves. They recommend it primarily to improve self-esteem.

To avoid panic attacks, Pilates is a good alternative, as it helps control impulses, but offers concentration and calm.

Running is recommended for those who have difficulty sleeping. The benefits of running can be seen in better blood circulation and heart rate, which helps the body relax.

The lack of social skills, which is often related to difficulties in relationships, communication problems and self-esteem, can be controlled with the habitual practice of a team sport. For example, soccer, volleyball, basketball, among others, which helps cooperative practice.

On the other hand, for those who cannot be alone, swimming is a good option to develop attention to oneself, disconnect from the outside and seek well-being in solitude.

The Master in Psychology of Physical Activity and Sport, promoted by FUNIBER, provides concepts, strategies and tools for professionals in the psychology of physical activity and sport to plan, develop and adequately evaluate proposals for mental training and psychological.

Exercises and workouts

Mistakes we make when training legs

If there is a muscle group that does not require creativity with the selection of exercises, these are your legs. A massive quadriceps is rarely achieved through ingenuity. Rather, they are achieved by moving heavy weights in the squat or press through full ranges of motion and high repetitions.

In this article we will show the most common mistakes that happen when training legs.

1 Targeting wrong areas and other muscles.

This is a common mistake: To focus more on your quads and less on your glutes during the Smith machine or hack squats, move your feet further forward. Many believe that a wide stance will train the outer quadriceps better and a narrow stance will hit the inner surface more – another mistake. The fact is, even the most seasoned bodybuilders simply don’t know how to best target the four muscles of the quadriceps (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus medialis) and the muscles of the upper, inner thighs.

Errores que cometemos al entrenar piernas


  • Point your right toes to work your outer quadriceps (vastus lateralis); point them out to work the inner quadriceps (vastus medialis).
  • Keep your feet under your hips during exercises, such as the Smith machine, to target your quads more and your glutes less.
  • Taking a narrow stance will focus more on the outer quadriceps, taking a wide stance (and toes pointing out) will focus more on the inner thigh muscles.

2 Incomplete_Movement Range

You see it in every gym. Most guys load the leg press with as much weight as possible, just bending the knees just enough to keep the weight moving. This same error occurs on squats, smith machines, hack squats, and many times even for leg extensions. Anytime a bodybuilder trains quadriceps, they most likely won’t be working all full range of motion exercises, especially since doing leg exercises for full rep sets is tough and doing medium reps allows heavy training to give. an illusion of stronger training. By limiting the duration of the movements, you are limiting their growth.


  • Each rep of most squat sets should descend to where your quads are parallel to the floor or platform, if not deeper. The exception to this rule is when you want to do mid squats to focus more on the medial, research shows this is effective.
  • In a 45 degree leg press, the knees should touch your chest without the glutes coming out of the leg press seat, which would put a great deal of stress on your lower back.
  • When performing leg extensions, try to do a full stretch (perpendicular to the calf of the thigh) with a full contraction, in which you briefly lock your knees and flex your thighs.
  • Any other leg exercise should have a full stretch and squeeze.

3 Squats with an incorrect_form

Stopping well below parallel is not the worst offense in squats. Many bodybuilders lean too far forward and push their hips back too far, working their back, hips, and glutes more than their quads. What’s worse, this could strain the spinal erectors. If you are going to squat with a bad position, it is better not to do them. A better option is to practice the correct form of this exercise with the weightless bar until you are an expert.


  • Generally, when taking a stance that goes beyond shoulder width, it is best to do so with your toes angled slightly outward, but find the position that allows you to stay as close as possible vertical possible. Taller bodybuilders anabolika kaufen online shop often need a wider stance.
  • Exaggerate the arch in your lower back.
  • Your heels should never come off the floor when squatting. Push the weight up through the heels, not the balls of the feet.
  • Look forward through each repetition (not up, not down)
  • As you go down, keep your butt on your heels, as if you were going to sit in a chair.
  • Consider starting the squat with the Smith machine until you’ve mastered the form, then move on to squats with free weights.

4 Training too heavy

This mistake almost always travels in concert with the one that precedes it, since working too heavy leads to trick reps… and trick reps allow you to pass these types of weights. This is especially true of leg presses, because you will likely be able to use more metal with this exercise than any other. What this does is feed your ego.


  • Do all exercises with a full range of motion (see mistake # 2).
  • Keep reps for most sets in the 8-12 range.
  • Focus on the muscles, not the weight.
  • Forget about the ego if you want to make progress.
Health and nutrition

Breast milk contributes to the neurological development of the baby

Breast milk contains a substance, called selenoprotein P, that contributes to the neurological development of the baby, according to a study published recently in the journal Food Chemistry .

The researchers of this study developed a new method for analyzing breast milk that was able to quantify the levels of compounds that the baby receives during breastfeeding, discovering for the first time the presence of selenoprotein P.

This substance is involved in the production of hormones, in the immune system and is responsible for transporting selenium to the brain. A deficiency of this protein could be associated with some neurological disorders and other diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

The director of the study, Tamara García Barrera, has stated that this discovery of selenium in milk in the form of selenoprotein P “opens up several possibilities for research on the influence of breastfeeding on the neurological development of the baby.”

Leche materna contribuye al desarrollo neurológico del bebé

Until then, the transport of this substance through the umbilical cord and amniotic fluid was known, but it was unknown that this process continued during lactation.

Selenium helps the body function properly and prevents the formation of free radicals that damage cells. Several diseases, such as cancer and infertility, are associated with selenium deficiency.

The results of the study also offer more data on human milk that may contribute to improving formula milk.

FUNIBER promotes the Master’s Degree in Maternal and Child Nutrition, a program for professionals who want to expand their knowledge on aspects related to fertility, nutritional strategies for pediatric diseases and other factors that contribute to normal growth and development in childhood and adolescence.

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